Brick is a recently proposed metadata schema and ontology for describing building components and the relationships between them. It represents buildings as directed labeled graphs using the RDF data model. Using the SPARQL query language, building-agnostic applications query a Brick graph to discover the set of resources and relationships they require to operate. Latency-sensitive applications, such as user interfaces, demand response and modelpredictive control, require fast queries — conventionally less than 100ms.
We benchmark a set of popular open-source and commercial SPARQL databases against three real Brick models using seven application queries and find that none of them meet this performance target. This lack of performance can be attributed to design decisions that optimize for queries over large graphs consisting of billions of triples, but give poor spatial locality and join performance on the small dense graphs typical of Brick. We present the design and evaluation of HodDB, a RDF/SPARQL database for Brick built over a node-based index structure. HodDB performs Brick queries 3-700x faster than leading SPARQL databases and consistently meets the 100ms threshold, enabling the portability of important latency-sensitive building applications.
Published On: November 9, 2017
Presented At/In: 4th ACM International Conference on Systems for Energy-Efficient Built Environments (BuildSys), 2017